Brushed motor use an armature to act as a bipolar electromagnet. A commutator is a mechanical rotary switch that reverses the direction of the current twice per cycle. In contrast, brushless motor use permanent magnets as their external rotors. Moreover, brushless motor do not have brushes, which means they require less maintenance and are more efficient than brushless motor.
What is a brushless motor?
A brushless motor has a permanent magnet inside its external body and a rotating armature inside. A permanent magnet is stationary and is referred to as the “stator”. The rotating armature contains an electromagnet called the “rotor”.
In a brushless motor, when current is applied to the armature, the rotor rotates 180 degrees. In order to exceed the initial 180 degrees, the magnetic poles of the electromagnet must be flipped. When the rotor rotates, the carbon brush contacts the stator, flipping the magnetic field, causing the rotor to rotate 360 degrees.
Advantages of brushless motor:
- More efficient than brushed motor
- Longer lifespan as there is less wear and tear
- Improved speed control and precision thanks to the electronic control system
Disadvantages of brushless motor:
- More expensive to produce than brushed motor
- More complex electronic control system
- Can be more difficult to repair or replace components
What is a brushed motor?
Like brushless motor, brushless motor operate by changing the polarity of the internal windings of the motor. It is essentially a brushed motor from the inside out, without the need for a brush. In brushless motor, permanent magnets are installed on the rotor, while electromagnets are installed on the stator. The electronic speed controller (ESC) regulates or “reverses” the charge of the electromagnet in the stator, allowing the rotor to rotate 360 degrees.
Advantages of brushed motor:
- Cheaper to produce than brushless motor
- Simple and easy to repair and replace parts
- Low maintenance requirements
Disadvantages of brushed motor:
- Less efficient than brushless motor
- Shorter lifespan due to the wear of the brushes
- No electronic control system for speed control resulting in less precise control.
A brushed motor has an electromagnet that rotates around a stationary permanent magnet, with brushes and a commutator providing the connection to electrical power. The brushes allow the current to flow through the motor contacts, switching the magnetic field to keep the motor spinning. However, brushed motor are less efficient and generate more heat, noise, and vibration than brushless motor.
On the other hand, a brushless motor has a fixed electromagnet and a rotating permanent magnet. It uses electronic circuits to switch the current, eliminating the need for brushes and commutators. brushless motor are more efficient, durable, reliable, and precise than brushed motor, thanks to the electronic speed control and feedback systems that monitor and adjust motor performance. Also, since there are no mechanical parts in the motor, there is less wear, making brushless motor last longer.
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